Non-struct objects

Up until now, we've only looked at mapping structs to GraphQL objects. However, any Rust type can be mapped into a GraphQL object. In this chapter, we'll look at enums, but traits will work too - they don't have to be mapped into GraphQL interfaces.

Using Result-like enums can be a useful way of reporting e.g. validation errors from a mutation:

# #[derive(juniper::GraphQLObject)] struct User { name: String }

struct ValidationError {
    field: String,
    message: String,

# #[allow(dead_code)]
enum SignUpResult {

impl SignUpResult {
    fn user(&self) -> Option<&User> {
        match *self {
            SignUpResult::Ok(ref user) => Some(user),
            SignUpResult::Error(_) => None,

    fn error(&self) -> Option<&Vec<ValidationError>> {
        match *self {
            SignUpResult::Ok(_) => None,
            SignUpResult::Error(ref errors) => Some(errors)

# fn main() {}

Here, we use an enum to decide whether a user's input data was valid or not, and it could be used as the result of e.g. a sign up mutation.

While this is an example of how you could use something other than a struct to represent a GraphQL object, it's also an example on how you could implement error handling for "expected" errors - errors like validation errors. There are no hard rules on how to represent errors in GraphQL, but there are some comments from one of the authors of GraphQL on how they intended "hard" field errors to be used, and how to model expected errors.